MISHNAT HA-MIDDOT (Heb. מִשְׁנַת הַמִּדּוֹת; "treatise of measures"), considered the earliest Hebrew geometry. Mishnat ha-Middot comprises various methods for determining the dimensions of various plane and solid geometric figures. Its five chapters include, among other matters, a discussion of triangles, quadrilaterals, and frusta. The Heronic formula for the area of a triangle in terms of the lengths of the sides is given. For π the value of 31/<sub>7</sub> is used and this divergence from the biblical 3 is homiletically justified. One of the extant manuscripts has a sixth chapter dealing with the Tabernacle which is similar to sections of the baraita de-melekhet ha-mishkan . In spite of the similar names, there seems to be no connection between this work and the Baraita de-49 Middot which is frequently cited by medieval commentators. This treatise is written in a distinctive Hebrew that combines mishnaic style with a technical terminology that has affinities with Arabic, although it stands apart from the Hebrew mathematical terminology of the Hispano-Arabic period. In content, the Mishnat ha-Middot belongs to the stream of Oriental mathematics represented, e.g., by Heron, Greek mathematician (c. 100 C.E.) in the Hellenistic period, and al-Khwarizmi (c. 825 C.E.) in the Arabic period, to both of whose works it offers striking parallels. Some attribute it to R. Nehemiah (c. 150 C.E.), and see it as a link between the Hellenistic and Arabic texts, while others assign it to an unknown author of the Arabic period. -BIBLIOGRAPHY: S. Gandz (ed.), Mishnat ha-Middot (Eng., trans. 1932); Ẓarefati, in: Leshonenu, 23 (1958/59), 156–71; 24 (1959/60), 73–94. (Benjamin Weiss)

Encyclopedia Judaica. 1971.

Игры ⚽ Нужно решить контрольную?

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Mishnat ha-Middot — The Mishnat ha Middot (Hebrew: מִשְׁנַת הַמִּדּוֹת‎; treatise of measures ) is considered the earliest known Hebrew treatise on geometry. The treatise was discovered in the Munich Library by Moritz Steinschneider, who dated it between 800 and… …   Wikipedia

  • MATHEMATICS — Bible The Bible does not deal directly with proper mathematical subjects; however there are some parts that do relate indirectly to different mathematical topics. These are widely discussed by the various commentators on the Bible and Talmud: the …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • Baraita of the Forty-nine Rules — The Baraita of the Forty nine Rules (Hebrew: ברייתא מ ט מדות) is a work of rabbinical literature which is no longer in existence except in references by later authorities. Rashi, the Tosafists, Abraham ibn Ezra, Yalḳut, and Asher ben Jehiel… …   Wikipedia

  • Al-Juarismi — Sello emitido el 6 de septiembre de 1983 en la Unión Soviética conmemorando el aniversario n.º 1200 (aproximado) del matemático árabe. Abu Abdallah Muḥammad ibn Mūsā al Jwārizmī (Abu Yāffar) (أبو عبد الله محمد بن موسى الخوارزمي ابو جعفر),… …   Wikipedia Español

  • Rabbi Nehemiah — was a Hebrew priest, circa AD 150 (during the Tannaim era).He wrote the Mishnat ha Middot (ca. AD 150), the earliest known Hebrew text on geometry. In it, he explained away the common belief that the Bible defines π as being exactly equal to 3,… …   Wikipedia

  • Numerical approximations of π — This page is about the history of numerical approximations of the mathematical constant pi;. There is a summarizing table at chronology of computation of pi;. See also history of pi; for other aspects of the evolution of our knowledge about… …   Wikipedia

  • Akiva ben Iosef — (50 –135 EC) (hebreo: עקיבא) o simplemente Rabí Akiva fue un taná que vivió a finales del siglo I y principios del siglo II (los años de nacimiento y muerte mencionados son estimados). Perteneció a la tercera generación de Tanaim. Fue una gran… …   Wikipedia Español

  • Approximations of π — Timeline of approximations for pi …   Wikipedia

  • GANDZ, SOLOMON — (1887–1954), Semitics scholar and historian of mathematics. Gandz was born in Austria. He studied mathematics, Semitics, and rabbinics in Vienna and taught at a Viennese high school from 1915 to 1923. He emigrated to the United States in 1924 and …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • NUMBERS, TYPICAL AND IMPORTANT — Biblical numbers are primarily based on the decimal system, which is of Hamito Egyptian origin. The sexagesimal system, however, which ultimately derives from Sumerian usage, also plays an important role in Scripture, and since 60 is divisible by …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”